Physicochemical and Sensory Qualities of Pap (Ogi) produced from Bio-fortified Maize (Zea mays L.) and Tamarind Fruit Pulp (Tamarindus indica L.)

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ASUU Journal of Science


Ogi, a fermented cereal-based product, is low in vitamin A, and needs fortification, most especially for children. Tamarind fruit pulp was added to the maize for ogi processing before wet-milling at 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25%, 30% levels for nutrient and health benefits. Physicochemical and sensory qualities of the pap produced were evaluated. The samples prepared were samples A (100% maize), B (95% maize, 5% tamarind), C (90% maize, 10% tamarind), D (85% maize, 15% tamarind), E (80% maize, 20% tamarind), F (75% maize, 25% tamarind), G (70% maize, 30% tamarind). Beta carotene, proximate, swelling capacity, mineral, anti-nutritional and sensory properties of the samples was analysed using standard methods. The control (sample A) had the highest Beta carotene content (35.98 µg/ml), but reduced with increased tamarind pulp addition. Proximate composition was moisture (66.70–65.40%), protein (10.40–9.74%), fat (5.56–7.66%), fibre (0.61–1.02%), ash (0.88–1.19%), and carbohydrate (15.85–14.99%). The swelling capacity increased as tamarind quantity increased. Calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, copper, zinc were 3.00–2.00 mg/L; 2.00-2.32 mg/L; 1.84-1.88 mg/L; 1.28 – 1.02 mg/L; 0.02-0.01 mg/L and 0.68-0.59 respectively, with the treated samples having the highest quantities. The oxalates, tannins, phytates were 13.13-11.03mg; 1.48-1.43mg and 0.90-1.23mg respectively. The lightness, redness and yellowness of the samples reduced with increased tamarind content. The sensory evaluation showed that sample G (70% maize, 30% tamarind) was the most preferred, and can be concluded that tamarind improved pap-quality in terms of organoleptic and nutritional properties.


Team effort within the department


Bio-fortified maize, tamarind seed, fermentation process, pro-vitamin A, ogi