Thesis and Dissertation for the Department of Geography and Environmental Management


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    (UNIVERSITY OF ILORIN, 2018-02) YAHAYA, Olanrewaju Yusuf
    Desertification poses one of the greatest environmental challenges in Nigeria. It accounts for 73% of the estimated total cost of US$5.110 billion the country loses to environment degradation annually. More than 30 million people in the desertification frontline states including Katsina are estimated to be affected by the impact of desertification. The rural population that rely on dry lands ecosystem for farming are likely to be more vulnerable to the menace of desertification. This study therefore examined the vulnerability and adaptation of rural farm households to desertification in Katsina State of Nigeria. The specific objectives were to: (i) identify farm households‘ perception of the causes of desertification; (ii) assess the effects of desertification on farm households‘ livelihood; (iii) determine the degree of vulnerability of farm households to desertification; (iv) examine the factors influencing household‘s vulnerability to desertification; and (v) identify adaptation strategies for mitigating the effects of desertification among farm households. Data were collected from both primary and secondary sources. A systematic random sampling technique was employed to select 633 respondents in 18 rural communities from the six local government areas selected for the study. Data were collected on the perception, exposure, effects, vulnerability and adaptation strategies of the sampled households to desertification. Vulnerability Index was used to classify households into less, moderate and highly vulnerable. Tobit Model was used to determine the factors influencing farm households‘ vulnerability to desertification. The findings of the study were that: i. climate change (73.5%), deforestation (71.7%), environmental mismanagement (64.3%), and act of God (65.2%) were the perceived causes of desertification among the farm households; ii. decreased use of ground water (88.9%), low income from farm produce (66.7%), declining crop yields (63%), and extinction of flora and fauna species (59.3%) were the effects of desertification in the study area; iii. vulnerability to desertification varied from one Local Government Area to the other. The vulnerability index showed that Jibia L.G.A was less vulnerable (1.228), Kaita L.G.A. (0.523), Mashi L.G.A. (0.756) and Mai‘adua L.G.A. (0.685) were moderately vulnerable while Zango L.G.A. (-1.629) and Baure L.G.A. (-1.405) were highly vulnerable; iv. age of household head, farming status, educational level, size of the household, access to credit facilities and access to non-farm income (p < 0.05) were the factors influencing vulnerability of farm households to desertification; and v. planting of drought tolerant crops (95%), intercropping (94%), early planting (81%), liquidating accumulated assets (73%) and manure application (50.2%) were the major adaptive strategies employed by farm households. The study concluded that most of the farm households of the study area were vulnerable to desertification. The study therefore recommended the need to encourage livelihood diversification and intensified efforts toward effective management of environmental resources by respective governmental agencies.
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    The Impact of Tillage Methods on Land Resources in the Guinea Savanna Ecological Zone, Kwara State, Nigeria
    (UNIVERSITY OF ILORIN, 2018-05) AGAJA, Toluwalope Mubo
    Man’s relation with his natural environment is a complex one. Although, he is subject to natural controls and events, he acts as the dominant force creating major long term environmental challenges like soil degradation, water pollution among others. One of such activities of man is adopting different tillage methods in crop production. This study investigated the environmental impact of tillage methods on land resources in the guinea savanna ecological zone of Kwara State, Nigeria. The objectives were to: (i) examine the effects of tillage methods on soil quality; (ii) examine the effects of tillage methods on surface runoff; (iii) determine the impact of tillage methods on crop yield; and (iv) model the pattern and processes of pollution associated with tillage methods. The study was carried out at Unilorin Teaching and Research Farm (UTRF) and National Center for Agricultural Mechanization (NCAM), Idofian during the 2015 and 2016 maize seasons. Traditional heap (T), Notill (NT), Plough/Harrow (PH) and Plough/Harrow/Ridge (PHR) tillage were applied to surface runoff plots. Treatments were replicated thrice making 12 plots at each location. Soil samples were taken from 0-15cm and 16-30cm depths. Samples of surface runoff were collected from experimental plots. Yield parameters were measured. Soil and water physico-chemical analysis were carried out using standard laboratory procedures. Data were subjected to Analysis of variance, Least Significant Difference, Tukeyʼs test, Regression analysis at α=0.05% and Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). The findings of the study were that: i. ten soil physico-chemical parameters (e.g nitrate for UTRF (0.019 and 0.012mg/kg) and NCAM (0.001 and 0.025mg/kg)) were significant for PH and PHR while six (e.g soil water for UTRF (0.001 and 0.043mg/kg) and NCAM (0.029 and 0.03)) were significant for T and NT in the topsoil and subsoil (P ˂ 0.05) in the seasons; ii. ten surface runoff physico-chemical parameters (e.g nitrate with 0.001 and 0.001 mg/l in the seasons) were significant for NT and T while seven (e.g magnesium (0.001 and 0.045 mg/l in 2015) (0.001 and 0.027mg/l in 2016) were significant on PH and PHR for UTRF and NCAM sites; iii. crop yield (kg/ha) parameters showed that PH yield > NT yield (P (0.015) ˂ 0.05) > T yield (P (0.04) ˂ 0.05) and > PHR yield (P (0.046) ˂ 0.05) for UTRF and NCAM sites in 2015 while in 2016, PH yield > T yield (P (0.026) ˂ 0.05) > PHR yield (P (0.046) ˂ 0.05) and no statistical difference between PH and NT at both locations; and iv. SWAT model showed that four of nine biophysical factors examined (sediment yield-10.54 metric tons/ha, groundwater amount-174.45GWQmm, organic nitrogen- 62.62kg/ha, and nitrogen in surface runoff -5.15kg/ha) were higher for T, while three (surface runoff amount- 374.42SURQmm, evapotranspiration-752.78ETmm and soil loss-1.05USLE_LS) were higher for PH and PHR. The study concluded that tillage methods have impact on land resources, however, PH had comparatively favorable effect on the soil environment, contribution to surface runoff and crop yield. It is therefore recommended that PH should be adopted for a sustainable environment.
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    Effect of Climate and Land Use/Land Cover Change on Groundwater Recharge in Osun Drainage Basin, Nigeria
    (UNIVERSITY OF ILORIN, 2018-04) ASHAOLU, Eniola Damilola
    Sustainable management of groundwater resources on a Basement Complex (BC) aquifer can be better undertaken with the spatio-temporal knowledge of groundwater recharge. Groundwater residence time of BC aquifers is between three to six months. This makes the knowledge of the monthly groundwater recharge with emphasis on influencing factors imperative using the Osun drainage basin as a case study. The objectives of the study were to: (i) determine the spatio-temporal pattern of climate in the basin between 1976 and 2015; (ii) estimate the spatio-temporal pattern of land use/land cover change between 1984-2015; (iii) estimate the mean monthly water budget of the drainage basin; (iv) examine the effect of climate on the basin groundwater recharge; and (v) evaluate the effect of land use/land cover change on groundwater recharge. Data used for this study include rainfall amount, number of rainy days, temperature, relative humidity, windspeed, sunshine hour and potential evapotranspiration (PET). Others were satellite imageries, Digital Elevation Model (DEM), slope and aspect, soil texture, depth to water, and runoff discharge. The climate data were sourced from the Nigeria Meteorological Agency (NIMET) and National Centre for Environmental Prediction (NCEP), while PET was estimated using FAO Penman-Monteith method. Satellites imageries and DEM were acquired from USGS-EROS satellite image database and National Aeronautics and Space Administration, respectively. Soil map was extracted from the harmonized world soil database of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). Depth to water was adapted from Federal Ministry of Water Resources master plan (2014), while the discharge data at Apoje station were collected from Ogun-Oshun River Basin Development Authority. The data were subjected to remote sensing and GIS analysis, hydrological modelling using WetSpass-M, Z-score, Mann-kendall, Regression and Spearman Ranks statistical analysis. The findings of study were that: i. eighteen dry years were discovered between 1976 and 2015based on rainfall amount, and seven (39%) of these occurred in the last decade (2006-2015) of record, ii. the most significant land use/land cover change occurred in forest and wetland that declined by about 59% and 85%, respectively between 1984 and 2015, while, built-up area increased by 235% during the same period; iii. water budget analysis indicated that about 27% of the rainfall received in Osun drainage basin resulted in groundwater recharge, while the remaining were lost through evapotranspiration (43%), surface runoff (21%) and interception (9%); iv. rainfall amount accounted for 95% of the variability in groundwater recharge in Osun drainage basin, with highest recharge occurring in September (0 - 212.74mm); and v. land use/land cover change accounted only 10% reduction in mean groundwater recharge between 1984 and 2015. The study concluded that the knowledge of the monthly spatio-temporal status of the groundwater recharge and the influencing factors are important. It is recommended that in preparing sustainable groundwater resources management plan for the basin the spatio-temporal status of groundwater should be considered. Furthermore, the monthly groundwater withdrawal should be regulated by Ogun-Osun River Basin Development Authority and relevant agencies.
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    (UNIVERSITY OF ILORIN, 2018-04) LAWAL, Moshood Oseiza
    Labour migration has long been an important livelihood strategy for most people in search of jobs and livelihood sustenance. The increase in the trend of labour migration in Nigeria in the last few decades and its attendant challenges has necessitated this study. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of labour migration on livelihood development in selected towns of Kwara State, Nigeria. The objectives were to:(i) assess the pattern of labour migration in the study area; (ii)examine the pattern of livelihood development; (iii) examine factors affecting labour migration and livelihood development;(iv) assess the impact of labour migration on the standard of living of the migrants; and (v) examine the relationships between labour migration and livelihood development. Systematic random sampling technique was used to select 530 heads of household in 18 randomly selected medium-sized towns in nine out of the sixteen Local Government Areas of Kwara State using questionnaire administration. Factor analysis was used to depict pattern differentiation of labour migration and livelihood development. Canonical correlation analysis was used to examine the relationship between labour migration and livelihood development. Stepwise multiple regression analysis was used to determine factors affecting labour migration and livelihood development at 0.05 level. The findings of the study were that: i. the factor analysis procedure reduced the 14 labour migration variables to five orthogonal factors namely: skills acquisition index (33.2%), age and social issues index (16.8%), education and locational attraction index (13.8%), income enhancement index (8.3%) and retirement policy index (7.9%), suggesting redundancy in other variables; ii. the 18 livelihood development variables were reduced to four orthogonal factors namely: family enhancement index (50.5%), income enhancement index (12.6%), wealth index (9.2%) and asset enhancement index (7.0%); iii. the stepwise multiple regression method showed that age, education, skill experience, security- social problems and improved income together explained 63.7% of the variance in labour migration, while average income, earning above minimum wage, earning below minimum wage and family asset together explained 79.1% of the variance in the explanation of livelihood development; iv. there were significant impact on the livelihood of respondents after migration. Migrants earning below N10,000 decreased by 16.8% after migrating, while those earning N10,000 and above increased by 16.9%; and v. results of canonical correlation analysis showed that strong association exists between labour migration and livelihood development. Skills acquisition (0.92), family enhancement index (0.54), average monthly income index (0.55) and asset enhancements index (0.54) strongly correlated. Education and locational attraction (0.84) strongly correlated with family enhancement index (0.84). Income enhancement (0.78), wealth index (0.72) and improved income index (0.64) are strongly correlated. While, retirement and government policy (0.80) correlated highly with wealth index (0.62) and asset enhancement index (0.72). The study concluded that significant relationship exists between labour migration and livelihood development in Kwara State thereby encouraging intensive labour migration. The study recommended the establishment of entrepreneurial skills centers for community development to improve earning capacities of migrants.
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    Rice is a staple food in high demand by households, but local production in Nigeria has not met the demand for rice consumption. The reasons for this were often connected with edaphic and human factors. This study therefore, examined soil and socio-economic constraints to irrigated rice production in the Kano River Project Phase I. The objectives were to: (i) assess the nature and variation in physico-chemical properties of soils in the study area; (ii) examine the relationship between input costs and net-profit of irrigated rice production systems; (iii) assess the constraints of rice farming; (iv) examine the factors that affect farmers’ adjustments to project inputs recommendation for rice farming; and (v) assess the sustainability and optimization of irrigated rice production systems. Purposive sampling technique was used to select two irrigated soil units in Kura and Bunkure irrigation layouts. Ten hectares were demarcated on Pab and Pab/Pb Complex soils in the two layouts and their corresponding adjacent non-irrigated lands for comparison. Purposive sampling was also used to pick 10 of the 58 settlements in the study area. Copies of a structured questionnaire were administered to 1,730 registered irrigated rice farmers in the two soil units. Descriptive and inferential statistics including simple percentages and goal programming were employed. The findings of the study were that the soils are generally sandy (69% to 79%). All the parameters of the two irrigated soil units exhibited homogeneity (C.V < 33%). Eight of the twenty-one soil parameters in irrigated soil were not significantly different from non-irrigated soil in Pab soil of Kura (p < 1.73), but in Bunkure only six parameters were not different (p < 1.73). Five soil parameters each in irrigated Pab/Pb complex soil of Kura and Bunkure were not different (p < 1.73 ) from those in non-irrigated fields, the other sixteen parameters were significantly different (p >1.73 ); there is positive correlation (r = 0.52) between rice input costs and net-profit. Covariance analysis showed positive linear relationship in eight rice-farming settlements (Kura +834,785,050.54, Bunkure +209,427,795.38, Danhasan +1,760,623,900.02, Yadakwari +120,170,201.29, Gafan +732,997,522.32, Imawa +401,864,387.19, Kosawa +1,474,231,798.99, Makwaro +127,780,984.59) and negative in two Babbabgiji -707,072,102.23 and Kadawa -192,341,627.88); nitrogen (0.06g/kg-1) and organic matter (0.8g/kg-1) fell below threshold levels of 2.0g/kg-1 and 68.8 g/kg-1, respectively and the factors that affect farmers’ adjustments to project inputs recommendation for rice farming; inputs costing (24.54%), farming knowledge (21.50%), technical farming experience (16.24%), modern techniques (16.21%) and labour input (10.30%) were the factors that contributed 88.77% of the input variance adjustment to rice production; and sustainability index (Z0 = 348 > 0) indicated that the present irrigated rice production system is not sustainable. Optimization procedure showed that 97.13% sustainability in rice production can be achieved. The study concluded that irrigated rice production in the Kano River Project I were constrained by soil nitrogen, organic matter content and five socio-economic factors. It is therefore recommended that nitrogen, organic matter input optimizations coupled with education of farmers on modern input techniques should be improved.
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    (UNIVERSITY OF ILORIN, 2017-03) OWOPUTI, Emmanuel Adetose
    Nigeria has 853 kilometers of coastline, 450 kilometers inland waterways and a sovereign right to 200 nautical miles (370.4km) exclusive economic zone. In spite of these, water transport has a share of 1.6% of Nigeria’s domestic product; suggesting that this resource has not been effectively harnessed for development. This study examined the opportunities and challenges of waterway transportation in the coastal area of South Western Nigeria. The objectives were to: (i) evaluate the potential of the area for inland water transport development; (ii) examine the contribution of inland waterway transport to passenger and freight movement; (iii) identify the factors determining the impacts of inland waterway transportation on socio-economic development; and (iv) identify the problems of inland waterway transportation in the study area. Both primary and secondary data were used to elicit information on basin morphometry, capacity of jetties, inland water operations, contributions of inland waterway and on the challenges facing inland waterway transport in the study area. Purposive and systematic random sampling techniques were employed based on stakeholder theory. Two types of questionnaire were used consisting of 415 copies administered to eight relevant government agencies and 570 to residents in the southwest coastal area. The analytical tools employed were orthogonal factor analysis, multiple regression analysis and post-hoc analysis. The findings of the study were that:, i.Inland waterway has high potential in the study area. The results of basin morphometry analyses confirmed that the study area is highly riverine in nature (stream frequency = 1.58, drainage density = 1.10 km / km2, number of river basins = 48, total numbers of streams = 873); ii..waterway transportation is largely underutilized. The example from Lagos for which secondary data were available showed that in 2015, there were only 318 registered boats as against 298,319 road vehicles. An average of 2 million of the over 20 million Lagosians travel by water monthly. Most of the residents still depend on other modes of transportation; iii.. the factors determining the impacts of inland water way on socio-economic development vary among the three coastal states. In Lagos, they are: waterway underutilization, improvement in income, poor jetties facilities, improvement in education, provision of job opportunities and poor terminal infrastructure (R2 = 68.9%). In Ogun state, they include improvement in average income, relatively maintained terminal facilities, relatively functional port facilities, relative access to port facility and provision of employment (R2= 69.1%). In Ondo state they are: waterway underutilization, political interference, poor jetty infrastructure, improvement in income, and job opportunities (R2=78.9%); and constraints, congestion at the jetties, insufficient jetty facility, and political influence were found to be the major challenges of port utilization . The study concluded that inland waterway have high potential for transportation, but it is largely underutilized. The study recommended the need to connect these jetties to other modes of transportation and the encouragement of private-public participation as a way of injecting the required capital for development in the coastal area of south west Nigeria.
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    (UNIVERSITY OF ILORIN, 2020-01) MUSTAFA, Ibrahim Alhaji
    Insurgency activities have continued to ravage the Northeastern part of Nigeria since 2009. This resulted in loss of lives and properties. Despite the military intervention, the insurgencies still occur unabated in the region. The aim of the study was to examine insurgency activities in some selected Northeastern states of Nigeria. The objectives of the study were to: (i) examine the nature of insurgency activities in the study area; (ii) establish the spatio-temporal pattern of insurgency activities over the period of 2009-2017; (iii) determine the factors responsible for the insurgency activities; (iv) examine the effects of insurgency activities in the study area; and (v) classify the intensity of insurgency activities. Data for the study were generated from both primary and secondary sources. Primary data were collected from Internal Displaced Persons (IDP) Camps through the administration of structured questionnaire and oral interviews. Secondary data were derived from security agencies’ records and insurgency data from Armed Conflicts Location and Events Data (ACLED). Purposive sampling method was adopted in the selection of IDP Camps, while random sampling technique was employed in the selection of 633 respondents. Interviews were conducted with security agencies, security personnel and IDP camp officials. The insurgency data from ACLED were used to determine the spatio-temporal changes between 2009-2017 using Geographical Information System techniques. These data were subjected to both descriptive statistics (table and graph), and inferential statistical such as Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), and hot spot analysis. The findings of the study of the Northeastern states were that: i. the most prominent insurgency activity in the study area were kidnapping (25.93%); suicide bombing (16.09%); and attacks on security agencies (14.15%), citizen (13.28%), and infrastructure (11.65%); ii. the activity of insurgency indicated a statistically significant positive trend in insurgency for the period of the study with 38% occurrences per year and R-square of 58% variability in its frequency; iii. poverty level (15.62%), presence of hideouts (15.57%), unemployment (14.61%), porous border (14.42%), low educational level (13.90%); and religious extremism (13.51%) were the factors that encouraged insurgency. Incidentally, the lack of government presence was not a major factor 13.00%; iv. loss of lives (23.09%), displacement of people (17.51%), destruction of property (15.86%), and destruction of farm land (11.46%) were the major effects of insurgency; v. high-high intensity of insurgency were experienced in Gwoza, Konduga, Madagali, Michika and Gujba, while the insurgency hot spot with 99% confidence level were exhibited in Maiduguri, Jere, and Mafa within the time frame of the study. The study concluded that insurgency activity pattern can be monitored using GIS to identify and provide an understanding of the location, intensity, and trend in the selected Northeastern states of Nigeria. The study recommended that anti-kidnapping laws should be enacted in the study area; efforts should be made by the Government in reducing poverty through the provision of enabling environment for job creation; and provision of adequate security in the study area so that it can assist in checkmating the activities of the insurgent.
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    (UNIVERSITY OF ILORIN, 2021-01) KEKERE, Adamu Ademoh
    Road foundation consists of subbase and subgrade layers and is a product of earth materials. It responds to the vagaries of weather and climate. Road foundation failure may vary with climate. This variation has been observed in Nigeria. The study examined the impact of climate on road foundation failure in Nigeria and its implication for road management. The objectives of the study were to: (i) examine the pattern of road subbase and subgrade in each morphoclimatic zone; (ii) examine the relationship between climatic variables and road subbase and subgrade in different morphoclimatic zone; (iii) assess the impact of climate on road subbase and subgrade in each morphoclimatic zone; and (iv) compare the geotechnical properties of road subbase and subgrade in the study area with the Federal Ministry of Works and Housing (FMW&H) standard. Data for the study were obtained from secondary sources. Available climatic data (rainfall, maximum temperature and minimum temperature) for 36years (1980-2016) were obtained from the Nigerian Metrological Agency (NIMET). Geotechnical properties particle size distribution (PSD), natural moisture content (NMC), liquid limit (LL), plastic limit (PL), plasticity index (P), maximum dry density MDD), optimum moisture content (OMC) and California Bearing Ratio (CBR) were obtained from the Pavement Evaluation Unit, FMW&H, Nigerian Building and Road Research Institute (NBRRI) and Federal Road Maintenance Agency (FERMA). Purposive sampling technique was employed in selecting two road networks from each of the four morphoclimatic zones (namely: hot-dry, temperate-dry, hot-humid and warm-humid zones). From these, a total of 697 Kilometers of road and 516 sample points were selected. Principal component analysis, ANOVA, multiple correlations and multiple linear regressions were used to analyze the data. The findings of the study were that: i. significant differences (df = 0.05) exist in the spatial pattern of geotechnical properties in the morphoclimatic zones of Nigeria; ii. many of the climate and geotechnical properties were strongly correlated with values ranging from r = 0.64 between rainfall and liquid limit in Brinin Yauri-Malando-Wara road to r = - 0.72 between liquid limit and rainfall in Akwanga-Toto-Abuja road; iii. rainfall, maximum temperature and minimum temperature weakly predicted foundation failure with R2 of 1.40% in the hot humid zone to 35.2 % in the temperate dry zone; iv. the tested geotechnical road quality parameters for subbase and subgrade materials fell short of the standard of FMW&H in 95% of the sample points; and v. the geotechnical properties that determine road failure were PSD, NMC, LL, PL, PI, MDD, OMC, and CBR. The percentages of their explanations to road failure vary from 77.7 to 82.8 percents in the subbase category along Port Harcourt-Elele-Umanelu road and Benin-Agbor-Asaba road respectively, while in the subgrade category it ranges from, 71.4 to 82.8 percents in Akwanga-Abuja and Katchia-Kwoi-Nassarawa road respectively. The study concluded that the influence of climate on road foundation were less severe but vary according to morphoclimatic zones. The study recommended strict compliance with standard specifications and the use of weighbridges to check excess weight on Nigeria roads.
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    (UNIVERSITY OF ILORIN, 2021) AJADI, Bolakale Saheed
    Biodiversity loss has become a major problem in Southwestern Nigeria because 70-80 % of its forest has been converted to non-forest uses. Modern conservation systems have not yielded desired result because the techniques had proved inadequate in addressing conservation issues. This calls for an integration of indigenous conservation techniques with aspects of the modern techniques. The study is a comparative analysis of indigenous and modern methods of forest management in Southwestern, Nigeria. The objectives were to: (i) determine the level of adoption on indigenous and modern knowledge system of forest biodiversity conservation methods in the study area; (ii) assess the impact of indigenous and modern forest conservation; (iii) identify the factors affecting forest biodiversity conservation; and (iv) assess people’s perception of the relative effectiveness of indigenous and modern methods of forest biodiversity conservation in the study area. Primary and secondary data were used in this study. Primary data were collected through questionnaire administration and Focus Group Discussions (FGDs). The secondary data (inventories of woody species, lists of communities within the buffer zone, types of forest resources and conservation techniques) were obtained from Osun Osogbo Grove (OOG) and Old Oyo National Park (OONP) records. Nine communities that fell within 0-10km around the OONP were randomly selected, while the four communities surrounding the OOG were sampled. In all, 539 copies of the questionnaire were administered. Quadrant method was used for sampling of the woody species. The study sites consisted of eight plots of 50 x 50 m along two 300m long transects. One Way ANOVA, Discriminant Analysis, Relative Species Index, Species Diversity Index (SDI), Important Value Index and some descriptive methods, such as; tabulation, percentages, mean and standard deviation were used to analyse the data. The findings of the study were that: i) 96.1%, 97.5% and 90.9% of residents, stakeholders and staff, respectively supported the adoption of indigenous methods in OOG, while, 90.1%, 92.6% and 87.8 % of the residents, stakeholders and staff, supported the adoption of modern approaches in forest management in OONP; ii) biodiversity index was higher under indigenous conservation method at OOG of (3.48) compared to OONP (3.14) under modern conservation method; iii) factors affecting bio-diversity conservation in the two sites were fuel wood collection(19.60%),farming(21.50%),bush burning(17.83%), pastoralism (12.77%), deforestation(14.70%) and national policy governing the protected areas(13.60%); iv) 85% of the respondents viewed indigenous knowledge system as an effective conservation method; and viii v) the Species Diversity Index (SDI) suggests that both indigenous and modern techniques of forest conservation encouraged biodiversity conservation (SDI 3.01- 8.27); This study concluded that indigenous conservation techniques yielded better conservation results than modern techniques. The study recommended that indigenous conservation techniques should be given priority over modern techniques and where necessary both should be integrated.
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    Landfills and waste dumpsites are major sources of methane, carbon emission and other greenhouse gases (GHGs) within the ecosystem. However, efforts to convert these wastes to useful resource that could mitigate the emission of these gases are still daunting in developing countries particularly in Nigeria. This study assessed the management of solid waste in selected states of Southwestern Nigeria. The objectives of the study were to: (i) estimate the utilization index of solid waste; (ii) identify factors that affect waste utilization; (iii) examine the temporal pattern of waste utilization; (iv) identify differences in the use of virgin resources and waste on GHGs emission; and (v) estimate greenhouse gas emission saved due to the application of Reduce, Reuse and Recycle (3Rs). Primary and secondary data were used in this study. The primary data were obtained using a structured questionnaire designed on a five-point Likert Scale. Ten recycling plants were purposively sampled in Osun, Oyo, Ogun and Lagos States at 5% level of significant. A total of four hundred copies of the questionnaire were randomly administered to the staff of the recycling plant at forty copies per recycling plants. The secondary data were obtained from the recycling plants inventories and checklist for a period of six years (2012-2017). Also, data were collected on quantity of waste generated and reused from waste management agencies in the selected states. Interviews were also conducted to understand people’s perception on GHGs emission due to waste management concept of 3Rs. Both descriptive and inferential methods of data analyses were used. The descriptive methods used include tabulation, simple percentages, mean and standard deviation, while the inferential methods were relative index, multiple regression, factor analysis, trend analysis, two-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and Waste Reduction Model (WARM). The study finds that: i. waste utilization index between 2012 and 2017 varied from 10-29%; ii. environmental education, government policy, and benefits derivable from waste utilization accounted for 70.86% of the factors that promoted waste usage; iii. there was a reduction of 50.654tons for plastic, 1.912tons for iron, 0.054tons for copper, 0.115tons for aluminum and 0.099tons for steel in waste utilization; iv. reused waste was found to conserve more GHGs compared to virgin resource, while a significant difference exists (at F=0.021