Proximate composition, functional and sensory properties of “TUWO” prepared from maize (Zea mays) and Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranean)

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Tuwo is a non-fermented, gel like, maize based food commonly eaten among the Hausa ethnic group in Nigeria. This study aims to investigate the effect of fortification of maize tuwo using Bambara groundnut on the proximate composition, functional properties and sensory attributes of Bambara-maize tuwo. Blends of the tuwo were produced using response surface methodology and were subjected to sensory evaluation to determine consumer acceptance with respect to quality attributes such as appearance, texture, aroma, texture and mouth feel. The proximate composition of the flour blends showed an increase in protein, fibre ash, and fat content with an increase in the levels of Bambara groundnut and a decrease in carbohydrate and moisture content. Protein, ash, fibre, fat, moisture and carbohydrate content varied in the range 8.05–22.25%, 0.69–1.83%, 1.19–3.62%, 2.06–6.68%, 3.31–4.90 and 62.31 –75.41% respectively. The water absorption capacity increased with increase in the level of Bamabara substitution (1.25-1.70 g/ml) while the swelling index decreased slightly with an increased in Bambara substitute (2.00-2.50 g/ml). The result of the sensory evaluation shows that tuwo prepared from maize-Bambara flour compare favorably with 100% maize tuwo. The overall result has shown that it is possible to produce acceptable tuwo from the combination of maize and Bambara groundnut flour blends.



Bambara groundnut, proximate composition, functional properties, maize tuwo, maize flour