Hydrogeochemical evolution, water quality indices, irrigation suitability and pollution index of groundwater (PIG) around eastern Niger Delta, Nigeria

Akakuru, O. C. ; Eze, C.U. ; Okeke, O. C. ; Opara, A.I. ; Usman, A.O. ; Iheme, K.O. ; Ibeneme, S.I. ; Iwuoha, P.O. (2022)


The study was done to assess groundwater for different uses. Groundwater samples were collected from 17 locations and analyzed for physicochemical attributes. Hydrogeochemical data identified three significant Principal Components; PC1, 53.8% loadings, PC2, 46.2% loadings, PC3, 30.8% positive loadings. Correlation matrix analysis observed strong correlations in the majority of the parameters. Contamination Factor results reveal that HCO3, NO3, Na, Ca, and Mg had relatively low concentration < 1; Fe had a mean concentration of 1.18 (moderate contamination), while SO4, and Cl, had mean concentrations of 6.43 and 9.41, respectively. PLI result reveals that the samples had values less than 1. WQI result revealed that 11.7% of the samples are excellent, 82.4% of the water is of good quality, 5.9% are of poor quality. PIG result shows insignificant pollution of groundwater. The hydrogeochemical evolution shows Ca + Mg and Cl are the dominant ionic species in the cation and anion areas, respectively; and they are within the geochemical zone of 6 (calcium chloride water type) with a trend of Cl > SO4 > Ca > Mg > HCO3 > Na + K. From the Gibbs plot, rock-dominance zone is dominant in the groundwater samples. The suitability for irrigation analysis reveals that SAR, %NA, KR, and SSP in the entire study area are 100% suitable and fit for irrigation purposes, while MH had 88.2% of the sample as good and 11.8% as unsafe. The Wilcox plot shows that 70.6% of the entire sample belong to the excellent category whereas, 29.4% are of good to permissible category. Normal observing Normal observing of groundwater in the review region is of major significance.