TEACHERS’ CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOUR, COLLECTIVE EFFICACY AND STUDENTS’ ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN PUBLIC SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN NORTH-CENTRAL NIGERIA
Citizenship behaviour and collective efficacy which could influence students’ academic performance has been a major concern to educational stakeholders. Although, several studies have examined factors influencing students’ academic performance, the extent to which teachers’ citizenship behaviour and collective efficacy could influence students’ academic performance seem yet to be so determined. Hence, this study examined teacher citizenship behaviour, collective efficacy and students’ academic performance in public secondary schools in North-central Nigeria. The objectives of the study were to (i) determine the level of teacher citizenship behaviour; (ii) investigate the level of collective efficacy; (iii) assess the level of students’ academic performance; and (iv) examine the relationship between teachers’ benevolence and students’ academic performance. The study adopted descriptive research design of correlational type. The population of this study comprised 2,114 principals and 5,728 vice principals in all the public senior secondary schools in the North-central Nigeria. The target population comprised 977 principals and 2,454 vice principals in the sampled States. Random sampling technique was used to select three (Kwara, Kogi & Nassarawa) out of the six states in the geopolitical zone. Proportional sample procedure was used to select 112 out the 394 principals and 141 out of the 1,038 vice principals in Kwara State, 81 out of the 285 principals and 98 out of the 720 vice principals in Kogi State and 84 out of the 298 principals and 95 out of the 696 vice principals in Nassarawa State. Teachers’ Citizenship Behaviour Questionnaire (TCBQ), Collective Efficacy Questionnaire (CEQ) and Students’ Academic Performance Proforma (SAPP) were used to collect data for the study. The TCBQ and CEQ were with reliability coefficients of 0.78 and 0.84 respectively. Mean, Standard Deviation and Pearson Product-Moment Correlation Statistic were used to analyse the data at 0.05 level of significance. The benchmark (mean scores) for determining the level of teachers’ citizenship behaviour and collective efficacy was 1.00-1.99, low; 2.00-2.99, moderate and 3.00-4.00, High. Also, the benchmark for determining the level of students’ academic performance was 1.00-33.03, low; 33.04-66.06, average and 66.07-100, High. The findings of the study were that: i. the level of teachers’ citizenship behaviour was high (X ̅ = 3.15); ii. the level of collective efficacy was high (X ̅ = 3.15); iii. the level of students’ academic performance was average (X ̅ = 50.82); and iv. there was significant relationship among teachers’ citizenship behaviour, collective efficacy and students’ academic performance (f = 3.882, p<0.05). The study concluded that, effective teachers’ citizenship behaviour and collective efficacy helped to improve students’ academic performance in public senior secondary schools in North-central Nigeria. The implication of this study is that, if teachers’ citizenship behaviour and collective efficacy are effective, these would enhance students’ academic performance. The study recommended among others that teachers in public secondary schools in North-central Nigeria should not only work hard to sustain the level of their citizenship behaviour but also intensify effort to improve upon it to enhance students’ academic performance.