CYTOTOXICITY AND ANTI-PROLIFERATIVE STUDIES OF Crinum Jagus L. (Amaryllidaceae) BULB EXTRACT
Crinum jagus is a flowering plant, commonly called poison bulb. Traditionally, the bulb extract is used in the treatment of several ailments including cancer. Cancer is a global cause of death characterized by abnormal cell proliferation. This research thus aimed to identify secondary metabolites present in the crude extract of C. jagus and evaluate its cytotoxic and antiproliferative activities using bench top assays. Whole C. jagus bulb was collected, air-dried under the shade and extracted into distilled methanol. The extract was concentrated in vacuum and subjected to; phytochemical analysis, brine shrimp lethality (BSL) assay, Sorghum bicolor radical and Allium cepa root growth inhibitory assays. Data obtained was analyzed by Graphpad prism version 6.0. The whole bulb on extraction had a percentage yield of 12.15 % w/w. The phytochemical content of the extract includes alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins and some glycosides. The extract demonstrated concentration dependent brine shrimp lethality (LC50 of 65.62±0.74 μg/mL), Sorghum bicolor radical growth inhibition (IC50 = 5.36±3.21μg/mL) and significant Allium cepa root growth inhibition comparative to cyclophosphamide (a standard anticancer drug). The extract was found to be rich in secondary metabolites which elicited significant cytotoxicity and antiproliferative activities. This is the first report of antiproliferative activity of C. jagus bulb extract. Hence, this study justifies the traditional use of the bulb in the treatment of cancer.
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