The abattoir environment and rabies epidemics in a transit city of Nigeria, 2002-2008: Lessons from a spatial regression study
Rabies remains a public health concern in Ilorin, the capital city of Kwara State,Nigeria and requires accurate map of its spatial distribution for more effective vaccination programmes among humans and dogs. Using a geographic information system (GIS)-based approach, we computed classical and spatial lag regression models on eight spatial features, including the age of victim, their knowledge, proximity of victims' houses to bite site, veterinary clinic, and proportion of vaccinated dogs in victim's environment, proximity of victim's house to an abattoir, frequency of commute within abattoir environment, pre- and post-exposure vaccination status of dogbite victim against rabies. We found significant (p = 0.021) spatial autocorrelation between rabies cases and the spatial features we have considered. We concluded that the municipal abattoir (Pata) environment influenced dog-bite incidence and transmission of rabies virus along spatial scale to humans. The risk factors identified in this study offered a baseline for more effective surveillance of rabies and identification of safety of routes to schools for pupils and apprentices to market places in local community within Ilorin city, Nigeria.
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