Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia – never out of Africa?

No Thumbnail Available



Journal Title

Journal ISSN

Volume Title


CAB Reviews


Despite being eradicated from Europe and probably the rest of the world, contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) continues to plague sub-Saharan Africa affecting at least 25 countries, in particular Ethiopia, Ghana, Tanzania, Cameroon, Angola, Nigeria and Zambia. Evidence has shown that the causative agent, Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides, may have emerged from a closely related goat pathogen as recently as 300 years ago, which corresponds to the first description of CBPP in Europe. Numerous new vaccines have been produced over the last 20 years in an effort to improve on the protection afforded by the T1/44, a live vaccine in continuous use in Africa for over 60 years but none have so far succeeded; indeed, many have exacerbated the condition. In this review, we argue that the present tools for diagnosis and control are adequate for eradication and what is necessary are resources to improve vaccine coverage to levels of at least 80%, last seen in the 1970s when CBPP was restricted to very few countries of Africa. In addition, a study in Namibia supported the concept that strategic and targeted antimicrobial treatment can play a critical part in the control alongside regular and comprehensive vaccination.



Mycoplasma, CBPP, Cattle, Vaccines, Chemotherapy