Perceived Influence if Ingratiation on Organizational Performance among some Government Ministries in Kwara State


Ingratiation represents a mundane behavior in business life. It takes place in both public and private sectors. With traditional researches on the subject of influence within organizations often directed on that of management on the subordinates, it is therefore relevant to go in a different direction by examining the perceived influence of subordinates on the management in organizations. It becomes relevant to explore how ingratiation has led to reduced meritocracy. It is in line with this that this study sought to find out the basis on which ingratiation occurs most in organizations. The study was carried out via the lens of the social exchange theory. The data used in this study were obtained from 250 respondents selected with the use of multistage sampling technique. The collected data were analyzed with the use of the Pearson correlation method. The study revealed a strong relationship between the factors of religion, ethnicity, gender and ingratiation leading to low organizational performance. Based on this, the study recommends that organizations should employ the principle of meritocracy in a stringent manner in all issues relating to organizational behavior.



Ingratiation, Organization, Business life and Performance


Muhammed, A.Y., Raji, A., Sulaiman, L. A., Raji, K. O. & Aliu, F. O. (2018): Perceived Influence of Ingratiation on Organizational Performance among some Government Ministries in Kwara State. International Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities Reviews. 8(1); 88-95, Published by Department of Sociology/Anthropology, Madonna University, Okija. Available online at