Characterization and evaluation of the refractory properties of some selected Kwara State (Nigeria) clay deposits

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Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Ekiti State University, Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria


This study characterised seven (7) different clay samples obtained across Kwara State of Nigeria to ascertain their suitability as raw material for refractory applications. The clay samples were analysed using B.S 1377:1975, I.S. 1498-1970 and ASTM standards to obtain their physical and refractory properties, such as chemical composition, refractoriness, moisture content, loss on ignition, clay content, apparent porosity, bulk density, linear shrinkage, permeability, crushing strength, and thermal shock resistance. The results revealed that the clays belong to Alumino-Silicate Refractories through chemical analysis, since the major constituents of the clay samples (more than 75%) were Alumina (Al2O3) and silica (SiO2). The sample percentage clay contents ranged between 36.8 and 89.6; Apparent porosity (22.99-29.76 %); Moisture content (13-27.3%); Refractoriness (>1300oC); Permeability (79-87x10-3 N/mm2); Crushing strength (510-881 N/mm2) and Bulk density (2.26-2.77 g/Cm3). The sample clays’ properties met the required standards for fireclay refractory materials, and could be suitably replace imported clays / ceramics in refractory applications, such as in production of earthen wares, chalk; as insulating refractories for casting and melting of low and medium temperature iron and steel. If these clays are carefully utilised, it will assist in addressing the problem of inadequate job, and over dependence on foreign goods.


Evaluation of Kwara State deposits to enhance their usages for economic development


clay, refractoriness, porosity, strength, resistance


7. Shuaib-Babata, Y.L. & Mudiare, E. (2017). Characterization and evaluation of the refractory properties of some selected Kwara State (Nigeria) clay deposits. The Nigerian Journal of Mechanical Engineering (EKSU). 7 (1); 1-21