Synthesis and graphitization of resole resins by ferrocene

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Progress in Natural Science: Materials International, Elsevier


Commercial (Rs) and laboratory synthesized resoles (LSRs) containing 3–5 wt% ferrocene have been used to study the development of thermosetting resin compositions as binder materials for carbon-containing refractories (CCRs) production. The LSRs were developed based on formaldehyde to phenol 1.5 mol.% (1.5Rs) and 2.0 mol.% (2Rs). Microstructure and oxidation resistance of carbons derived from plain and modified resins have been compared. Chemical structure of the resins was studied using Fourier Transform InfraRed-Attenuated Total Reflection (FTIR-ATR) spectroscopy. X-ray Photoelectron spectroscopy was used to examine chemical changes during heat treatment of the modified products. Flow behavior of plain and formulated resins has been measured under isothermal condition. Rheology measurement results show that the selected amount of ferrocene did not affect the resin near-Newtonian fluid behavior and processability during refractory production. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) were used to characterize the derived carbon samples after thermal treatment of the resins. The results demonstrate that ferrocene is an excellent additive for crystallizing resoles carbon. The presence of fringes in TEM images indicates the graphitized carbon microstructure. The carbon reactivity in an oxidizing environment was also determined via thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA). Several factors, such as bond strength and atoms arrangement, have been found to control the carbonized modified-resin oxidation resistance.



Resole resins, Synthesis, Graphitization, Microstructure, Oxidation resistance