Cardiorenal Effects of Pharmaceutical Plant Effluent in Mice (Mus musculus)

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Physiological Society of Nigeria


Many pharmaceutical industries carelessly handle their effluents and indiscriminately release same to aquatic environment. These effluents often find their ways into surface and ground waters, contaminating public water and thus, serving as a potential threat to animals and human health. In this study, we investigated the cardiorenal effects of chronic oral exposure to pharmaceutical effluent in mice. Thirty male mice (Mus musculus) were randomly divided into groups A F and treated with 0.2 mLs 0.0 %, 2.5 %, 5.0%, 10.0%, 20.0% and 40% concentration (v/v, effluent/distilled water) of the effluent for 28 days, respectively. At the end of the experiment, the animals were sacrificed by cervical dislocation. Activities of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were determined in serum and heart homogenate, while uric acid, creatinine and electrolytes (sodium, potassium, bicarbonate and chloride ions) were determined in serum only. Data were expressed as Means ± standard error of mean and values were considered significant at p < 0.05. Results showed that, oral exposure to pharmaceutical effluent reduced (p < 0.05) cardiac ALP, AST and ALT activities as well as serum ALT activity. However, serum activities of ALP, creatinine and uric acid were elevated (p < 0.05). Similarly, there was derangement of electrolytes (potassium, chloride, bicarbonate and sodium ions) in the exposed mice, compared with control. This study has demonstrated that poorly treated pharmaceutical effluent disrupted cardiac and serum enzyme activities, caused electrolytes imbalance and elevated serum uric acid level, suggesting that, drinking water contaminated with pharmaceutical effluent may impair kidney and cardiac functions. Further study, investigating the histology of the kidney and heart of the pharmaceutical effluent-exposed animals as well as mechanism(s) of cardiorenal toxicity of the effluent, should be carried out to exploit its roles in pathogenesis of cardiorenal diseases.



cardiorenal, pharmaceutical effluent, electrolytes, enzymes, Mus musculus