Formulation of Vernonia amygdalina and Calotropis procera Leaf Extracts into a Cream for the Management of Skin Infections

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West African Journal of Pharmacy (West African Postgraduate College of Pharmacists)


Background: The incidence of skin infections in West Africa and in fact globally continues to increase at an alarming rate. Objective: This study was carried out to formulate the methanol extracts from Vernonia amygdalina and Calotropis procera into a topical cream for the treatment and management of skin infections. Method: Each extract was tested and thereafter combined in ratios 0:1, 1:3, 1:1, 3:1 and 1:0 Vernonia: Calotropis (V: C). The best extract combination based on results of zones of inhibition was then formulated into modified aqueous, cetomacrogol and vanishing cream bases. The creams were formulated at an extract concentration of 2.5, 5 and 10% w/w in the bases. The creams were further assessed for their physical and chemical properties. Antimicrobial activities of the creams were examined by the agar well diffusion method against Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans, and Trichophyton rubrum. A combination of ketoconazole and neomycin was used as control. Results: The creams exhibited zones of inhibition ranging from 8.00 ± 0.54 to 30.00 ± 0.00 mm. The extracts combined in ratio 3:1 V: C yielded the highest zones of inhibition ordinarily and in the cream across the test organisms. The cetomacrogol base was incompatible with the extract combinations, therefore unstable; the modified Aqueous cream base was stable with no antimicrobial activity while the vanishing cream base gave a stable cream with zones of inhibition against the test organisms. Conclusion: These outcomes confirm that these extracts possess antimicrobial activities, and when incorporated into creams, their activities vary according to the cream bases employed with the vanishing cream base being the most effective.



Vernonia amygdalina, Calotropis procera, antimicrobial, creams, skin infections