Potential Antibacterial Activity of the extracts ofLocal Chewing Sticks “Fagara zanthoxyloides and Distemonanthus benthamianus” against Gastrointestinal, Respiratory and Urinary Pathogens 1 2 2 3 2

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2019-03

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West African Journal of Pharmacy

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Background: The development of new antibacterial that offer significant activities over existing drugs is serious challenge to the health managers. Objective: This study aims at investigating the possible activity of Fagara zanthoxyloides and Distemonanthus benthamianus roots extract against selected microorganism. Methods: Preliminary phytochemical screening was carried out using standard methods. In-vitro antibacterial activity of the methanol extracts of both plants was also carried out using the agar well diffusion method against standard strains of Staphylococcus aureusATCC 25923, Pseudomonas aeruginosaATCC 27853, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Salmonella typhiiATCC 14028, Citrobacter freundiiATCC 8090and also some clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniaeand Proteus mirabilis at different concentrations and ratios. Results: Preliminary phytochemical screening showed that the extracts contained alkaloids, saponin, tannins, steroids, flavonoids, anthraquinones, cardiac glycosides and phenol. All the test microorganisms were susceptible to the inhibitory effect of the extracts at concentrations of 200 mg/mL and 500 mg/mL.Fagara zanthoxyloides had better antimicrobial activity with zones of inhibition ranging from 21.0 to 26.0 mm at 200 mg/mL and 24.3 to 29.3 mm at 500 mg/mL while Distemonanthus benthamianus had zones of inhibition ranging from 17.7 to 26.7 mm at 200 mg/mL and 19.0 to 26.7 mm at 500 mg/mL. Some of the test microorganisms were resistant to the standard antibiotics (cefuroxime, ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin and gentamicin) which were tested against. Combinations of the extracts in ratios 50:50 and 75:25 yielded no increase in activity. The MIC and MBCfor Distemonanthus benthamianus ranged from 6.25 mg/mL to 100 mg/mL and 25 to 200 mg/mL respectively while that of Fagara zanthoxyloidesranged from 1.56 mg/mL to 12.5 mg/mL and 50 to 200 mg/mL respectively. Conclusion: The antimicrobial activity demonstrated by Fagarazanthoxyloides and Distemonant husbenthamianus indicates that they would be valuable in the management of urinary, respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts infections while at the same time helping to mitigate the problem of antimicrobial resistance. Keywords: Antimicrobial, Chewing sticks, Gastrointestinal, Respiratory, Urinary Pathoges Phenolic compounds of plants; chief among them are the flavonoids which have potent antioxidant activities were found in these plant materials.

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Antimicrobial, Chewing sticks, Gastrointestinal, Respiratory, Urinary Pathogens

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