Chemical composition and sensory qualities of wheat-sorghum date cookies

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Crotian Journal of Food Technology, Biotechnology and Nutrition


Cookies are consumed on a large scale in developing countries such as Nigeria where macro- and micro nutrient malnutrition are prevalent. In this experimental study, functional properties, proximate and selected mineral composition of six formulated composite flours from sorghum flour (SF), wheat flour (WF) and date palm flour (DPF-sweetener) were determined using standard procedures. Four of the formulated composite flour were sweetened with DPF and blended using the following ratio (SF: WF; DPF, 80:20:25, 60:40:25, 40:60:25 and 20:80:25) respectively. The fifth sample (control) contained 100% WF sweetened with 25% sugar (sucrose), while the sixth sample is 100% WF sweetened with 25% DPF. Cookies were produced from 100g of blends of flour and 25g of date palm flour or sugar as sweetener where applicable. Sensory attributes were evaluated using nine point hedonic scale and data obtained were analyzed using Duncan multiple test at p<0.05. Loose bulk density ranges from 0.48-0.56g/mL, packed bulk density =0.69-0.74g/mL, water absorption capacity =1.00-1.60g/g and oil absorption capacity =1.18-1.64g/g. Proximate analysis was as follows: moisture =4.32%-5.91%, ash = 1.81%-2.45%, fat =18.94%-20.52%, protein =8.68%- 17.97%, fibre =2.72%-3.42% and carbohydrate =52.65%- 64.71%. Mineral compositions are as follows: calcium =6.31-8.10mg/100g, iron =0.08-1.00mg/100g and potassium =1.56-1.75mg/100g. Moisture content of the formulated cookies samples were within acceptable range. Ash, protein and calcium contents of the formulated samples were significantly higher than in control. SF: WF-80:20 sweetened with 25% DF had the highest iron content while SF: WF- 60: 40 sweetened with 25% DF had the highest potassium value. However, control had the highest fat and carbohydrate content. Through sensory evaluation, samples with SF and WF in ratio 60:40, 40: 60 and 20:80 sweetened with 25% date flour were similarly acceptable with the control. In conclusion, enriching wheat flour with sorghum and date palm flour in cookies production improves its nutritional value.


Food fortification


Wheat,, sorghum, date,, sensory, qualities,, chemical