Carbo-Nitriding of AISI 1018 Steel Plate with Animal Horn

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Mechanical Engineering, University of Ibadan


The research on the carbonitriding of AISI 1018 steel with animal horn was carried out with the aim of converting waste to wealth through re-use approach of waste management. Cattle horn was processed into two different morphologies namely: powder and flakes. Carbonitriding heat treatment was carried at 850oC and 450oC for carburizing and nitriding dominated processes respectively. Vickers hardness measurement was carried out on samples heat treated with horn powder and flakes. Optical metallography was carried out on carbonitrided sample for microstructural examination following the heat treatment. The results of the investigation showed that hardness gradient occurred with higher hardness value at the near surface and decreasing towards the core. Sample heat treated with horn flakes showed higher hardness than those that was heat treated with horn flakes. Microstructural examinations of carbonitrided samples revealed the presence of martensite and retained austenite. From the result of study, it was concluded that the high hardness values observed was attributed to the diffusion of carbon and nitrogen atoms to the interstices of the host atom. Again the solute atoms helps to stabilise austenite microstructures which later transformed to martensite observed in the optical micrographs.



abattoir, carbonitriding, hardness, horn, keratin, steel, waste


Ahmed, I. I., Mohammed, A. T., Adebisi, J. A., Yahaya, T., & Ambali, I. O. (2016). Carbo-Nitriding of AISI 1018 Steel Plate with Animal Horn. Paper presented at the International Conference of Mechanical Engineering, Energy Technology and Management, Ibadan.