Evaluation of Risks Factors Associated with Otitis Media in Children in Bauchi State – Nigeria

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Journal of Life and Environmental Sciences


Risk factors associated with Otitis Media in children were evaluated using a structured questionnaire amongst parents of patient-children attending ENT section of Specialist Hospital Bauchi. Out of the 400 respondents that ear swabs were collected from their children, 332 yielded microbial isolates and 68 no growth. The highest occurrence of infection was observed in male children below the ages of three years that suffered underlying infection such as common cold. These infections were mostly unilateral amongst children of breast and bottle feeding illiterate housewives using wood as source of domestic energy. This established relationship was significant between Age and sex, mode of feeding and type of energy generation processes (p<0.01). However, there was no statistically significant relationship between types of Otitis Media and sex, family history of Otitis Media and underlying infection, parental social, occupational and educational status, Age and forms of Otitis Media, sex and number of persons co-habiting in a room. This study confirms that Otitis Media is a highly multi-factorial disease associated with a number of environmental factors. Thus, routine check-up should be conducted in children at the onset of identified potential risk factors so as to avert the risk of permanent hearing loss, speech and language disabilities associated with Otitis Media. Lifestyles that minimize the risk of developing ear infection is hereby advocated such as encouraging breast feeding and bottle feeding of children in upright posture and avoidance of exposure to passive smoke.



Risk factors, otitis media, children, questionnaire, parents/guardian, Bauchi State