Acute Toxicity Study and Evaluation of the Anxiolytic Activity of the Ethanol Leaf Extract of Bryophyllum Pinnatum (Kurz) in Mice

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2019-04

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J. Pharm. Res. Dev. & Pract

Abstract

Introduction: Anxiety is a psychiatric disorder and identified as the most common stress-related mood disorders causing disability and premature death. Due to the several adverse effects of conventional anxiolytics that have reduced the compliance tendencies of patients, alternative therapies are being sought. Although, studies have shown relative central nervous system effects of different fractions of Bryophyllum pinnatum, no study has specifically evaluated the anxiolytic activity of the ethanol leaf extract of the plant (EEBP) hence, this study. Materials and Methods: Mice (22–25 g) were randomly distributed into six groups (n = 5) and administered thus: Group I and II received intraperitoneally 1 mL/kg saline and 1 mg/kg diazepam as negative and positive controls respectively whereas Groups III, IV, V and VI received oral doses of 250 mg/kg, 500 mg/kg, 1000 mg/kg, and 2000 mg/kg of B. pinnatum extract respectively followed by open field (OF) paradigm procedure. Similarly, the pattern of EEBP administration was repeated for the mice and then subjected to Elevated Plus Maze (EPM) test. Data were expressed as Mean ± Standard Error of Mean (SEM) using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by the Student-Newman-Keuls test. Results were regarded as significant at values of P < 0.05. Result: LD50 of EEBP is greater than 2000 mg/kg. EEBP exhibited a significant decrease in locomotion and rearing of mice at 500 mg/kg and 2000 mg/kg respectively. Contrarily, a significant increase in the duration of time spent by the mice in the open arm was observed at 1000 mg/kg whereas, none of the treated doses showed a significant reduction in the frequencies of entries in the EPM paradigm. However, EEBP showed a reduction in the index of open arm avoidance compared to the saline group. Conclusion: EEBP exhibited dose-dependent inhibitory central effects and may possess potential anxiolytic effect. However, further studies are required to determine its molecular mechanism of action

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Keywords

Bryophyllum pinnatum, anxiolytics,, Elevated plus maze, Open Field test, Open Arm Avoidance Index

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