Chlorpyrifos: toxicological effects on clarias gariepinus and its amelioration by blighia sapida seeds’ extract

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Society for the conservation of phytofuel and science


Chlorpyrifos; CPF (O, O-diethyl O-3, 5, 6–trichloro-2-pyridyphosphorothioate) is commonly used for the control of pests and insects in agricultural fields and surrounding freshwater reservoirs. This study was carried out to find out the ameliorative potentials of Blighia sapida seeds on Clarias gariepinus exposed to chlorpyrifos. The Acute toxicity assay was to determine the 96 h Lethal Concentration (LC50) values of organophosphate pesticide, which was conducted with definitive test in a semi-static system in the laboratory using the standard methods. Range finding test was carried out prior to determination of the concentrations of the test (chlorpyrifos) solution for definitive test. The experiment was conducted in plastic containers containing 10L of non-chlorinated and aerated water. The acute study; A set of 15 fish specimen were randomly exposed to organophosphate concentrations; 1ml of stock solution was added to B1 and B2, 2ml to C1 and C2, 3ml to D1 and D2, 4ml to E1 and E2 while 5ml was added to F1 and F2. The exposure was for 7 days. For chronic study; one tenth of LC50 (0.12ml/L) = 0.012ml/L was used for Groups B-E while group A is the positive control with 0.00ml/L of Chlorpyrifos (i.e. the group was free of chlorpyrifos), Group B was made the negative control, fishes in this group, which were also exposed to 0.012ml/L chlorpyrifos, were only fed with normal fish feed i.e. no Blighia sapida seeds’ extract was added, to serve as the negative control. The exposure was for 28 days and the fishes in groups C to E were fed with feeds, formulated using Blighia sapida seed. Results obtained from this study revealed that chlorpyrifos caused considerable alterations, i.e. increase in enzymes’ activities (ALT, AST, ALP) as well as alterations in other metabolites (urea, albumin, protein and glucose) in the serum, liver and kidney of all Clarias gariepinus in the negative group which are fishes exposed to the insecticide; chlorpyrifos is suspected to have induced some tissue damages in the C. gariepinus, that may result in enzymes and metabolites leakages into the serum. Blighia sapida seeds’ extract (at 25%, 50% and 75%) reduced some of the adverse effects of chlorpyrifos in C. gariepinus exposed and it was therefore concluded to possess ameliorative effects against animals’ exposure to chlorpyrifos pesticides. Therefore, this chemical should be handled with care as usual and lots of caution must still be taken to prevent or reduce its entrance or leakage into the aquatic environment. Blighia sapida seeds’ extract is therefore recommended for use to ameliorate any possible toxic effects of chronic chlorpyrifos exposure.



Chlorpyrifos, Blighia sapida, Amelioration, Clarias gariepinus, Pesticides