Phytochemical screening and in vivo antidiabetic evaluation of 1:1 combination of the leaf extracts of Heliotropium indicum L. (Boraginaceae) and Anthocleista djalonensis A. Chev. (Loganiaceae)


Background: Diabetes is a leading cause of death globally. In many part of developing nations herbal medicines are often used singly or in combination for the management of diabetes. Objectives: This study was designed to investigate the cytotoxicity, anti-diabetic and anti-dyslipidemic effects of Heliotropium indicum (HI) and Anthocleista djalonensis (AD) used singly and in combination. The qualitative and quantitative phytochemical screening was also carried out. Methods: The plant extracts were screened for their cytotoxicity using the Brine Shrimp Lethality Assay (BSLA). Hyperglycaemia was induced with streptozotocin (STZ) and confirmed; the hyperglycaemic rats were grouped and various doses of HI and AD extracts administered singly and in combination once a day for 14 days with oral cannular. Blood glucose of various groups was measured on days 0, 1, 4, 7, 10 and 14. The lipid profile was also determined. Qualitative and quantitative phytochemical evaluation was carried out using standard procedures. Results: The combination of extracts showed more toxic effect compared to individual extracts. The combination of leaf extracts of HI and AD (in ratio 1:1) produced significant reduction of blood glucose at 400 mg/kg (p<0.05) on day 14 while this combination also produced a significant (p<0.05) reduction in serum phospholipids at 200 and 400 mg/kg. Phytochemical screening of the methanol leaf extract of AD revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, terpenoids, steroids and tannins while alkaloids, flavonoids and steroids were absent in HI. Conclusion: The administration of extract of HI and AD singly produced significant reduction in blood glucose and found to be safe. The methanol leaf extract of HI and AD combination also produced significant reduction in blood glucose and serum phospholipids but was found to be toxic. Hence, combined used of HI and AD should be discouraged because of increased of toxicity.



Heliotropiun indicum, Anthocleista djalonensis, hyperglycaemia, streptozotocin, phytochemistry, cytotoxicity