Bacteriology of Some Liquid Herbal Products Sold in Ilorin - Kwara State Nigeria

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Journal of Science and Practice of Pharmacy.


Purpose: This study aims to establish the safety and/or potential public health dangers associated with the consumption of liquid herbal preparations (LHP) sold in Ilorin-Kwara State. Methods: Ten LHPs were randomly collected from three locations, kept under cold chain and transported to the Laboratory. All samples were evaluated for bacterial load using aerobic plate count method and bacterial isolates were presumptively identified using standard microbiological methods. Furthermore, Gram negative bacteria were identified using 12A Microbact ® Identification kits. Results: Sixty percent (60%) were fresh and faint, 4 (40%) were stale and putrid in smell as well as free of foreign matter. pH and bacterial load of samples ranged from 3.60 to 9.75 and 2.5 x 102 to 4.4 x 106 CFU/ mL respectively. Five (5) genera of bacteria, namely; Klebsiella species 10 (29.41%), Bacillus subtilis 8 (23.53%), Enterobcter spps. 7 (20.59%), Staphylococcus aureus 6 (17.65%) and Serretia marcescens 3(8.82%) were isolated from these LHPs. All isolates were resistant (100%) to Sulphamethoxazole trimethoprim combination. Amoxocillin clavulanate was active against 62.50% of K. pneumonia and S. marcescens isolates. Also 50% of K. oxytoca and E. gergoviae were susceptible to Amoxocillin clavulanate combination. Approximately, 8 (80%) of LHPs had bacterial load of 2.5 x 102 to 4.4 x 106 CFU/ mL and 2 (20%) yielded no growth. In addition, 40% of LHPs had bacterial load of 106 CFU/mL beyond the 104 CFU/mL permissible limit stated by European Pharmacopoeia. Conclusion: The observed high bacterial load and the presence of S. aureus as well as enteric bacteria of public health importance in these LHPs underscore the potential risk inherent in the consumption of these preparations. Therefore, public health awareness campaign on the dangers of unapproved LHPs consumption should be instituted.



Liquid herbal preparations, Bacterial contamination, Ilorin metropolis