Methanolysis of CaO based catalyst derived from egg shell-snail shell-wood ash mixed for fatty acid methylester (FAME) synthesis from a ternary mixture of Irvingia gabonensis -Pentaclethra macrophylla - Elais guineensis oil blend: An application of simplex lattice and central composite design optimization

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Considering the large number of wastes produced as wood ash, snail and eggshells around the globe, CaO based catalyst was derived from the thermal treatment of carbon carbonate obtained from the mixture of these wastes for methanolysis synthesis of FAME from the ternary mixture (33:33:34) of Irvingia gabonensis, Pentaclethra macrophylla, and Elais guineensis oil was carried out in this study. Calcined blend catalyst (CBC) was well characterized by SEM, EDX-ray, FTIR and BET analysis. The strength of the basicity of the catalyst was tested by catalyst recyclability via methanolysis of CaO transesterification of ternary blend oil to FAME. Results showed a maximum FAME yield of 98.00 (wt%) with the statistical optimization prediction of 97.33 (wt%) at a reaction time of 64.71 min, catalyst amount of 4.5 wt%, reaction temperature of 61.61 °C, and methanol/oil molar ratio of 8:1 (ml/ml), the predicted value was validated in triplicate to obtain an average FAME of 97.22 (wt%). Catalyst reusability was stopped at the 3rd cycle due to decrease in it activity. Statistical optimization through analysis of variance further confirmed the remarkable significant effects of the independent variables with pvalue < 0.0001. Physicochemical properties of the FAME conformed with biodiesel recommended standard. Results also show that the CaCO3 contained in the mixture of wood ash, snail and eggshells is a promising source for CaO catalyst production for industrial application. 1. Introduction Energy resources come with them abundant socioeconomic potential, providing financial progress for people and energy facilities for indigenous economies. Nevertheless, the infrastructure which brings energy services can cause disruption in energy accidentally, often cause damages, and energy mortalities, with many systems often deaths will happen even when the systems are working as intend (Silva et al., 2013) [1]. Meanwhile, the greatest energy mortalities that resulted from energy generation by humankind are the creation of air pollution. The most deadly of which, generated from the burning of fossil fuels and biomass is estimated to cause deaths annually (Silva et al., 2013) [1]. According to the recent reports by US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in each year, between 2.96 million and 4.21 million premature deaths occur due to fossil (coal, oil and natural gas) fuels. In the US alone, it has been reported



FAME, Ternary mixture, Irvingia gabonensis, Pentaclethra macrophylla, Elais guineensis, Catalyst reusability