Factors associated with Tuberculosis among HIV individuals receiving combination antiretroviral therapy in General Hospital, Lafiagi, Nigeria

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Journal Pharmaceutical Reserach Development and Practice


Tuberculosis (TB) leads to substantial deadly consequences in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) positive people in Africa, even with the free access to combination Antiretroviral Therapy (cART). This research was conducted to assess the risk factors associated with development of TB among HIV individuals receiving cART. A cross-sectional study was investigated among 230 HIV infected patients receiving cART in HIV Centre Lafiagi, Kwara State, Nigeria. Clinical symptomatology, GeneXpert and Sputum Smear Microscopy tests were used for diagnosis of TB among HIV infected patients. Logistic regression analysis was exploited to outline factors related to incidence of TB/HIV co-infection. Of the 230 HIV subjects enrolled, only (4.8 %) had pulmonary TB. The rate of co-infection was lesser in females, (4.0 %) than males, (10.0 %). Patients with CD4 count below 200 cells/ml had a greater co-infection rate (14.3%) and burden of co-infection (63.6 %) than patients with CD4 counts larger than 200 cells/ml (2.2 % and 36.4 %, respectively). The highest risk factor linked with the incidence of TB in these patients was inappropriate adherence to cART (Odds Ratio, 7.32; 11.012-23.678, 95 % CI). Other factors were low CD4 count cells (Odds Ratio, 4.90; 1.431-11.302, 95 % CI), advanced WHO clinical stage (Odds Ratio, 3.11; 0.231-0.611, 95 % CI), low Body Mass Index (Odds Ratio, 2.33; 1.271-9.202, 95 % CI) and gender (Odds Ratio, 1.22; 0.144-1.193, 95 % CI). Inappropriate drug adherence is a major risk factor for development of TB in HIV infected patients on cART. Concerted efforts on cART adherence should be intensified to improve therapy significantly and reduce the burden of TB/HIV co-infection.




Inappropriate adherence, GeneXpert, Microscopy tests, Body Mass Index