Geochemistry and Origin of Fe-Mn Oxide Mineralization in Kaoje-Derena and Their Environs, Northwestern Nigeria


The mineralogy and origin of the schist hosted manganite and sandstone hosted goethite mineralizations west of Zuru schist belt Nigeria was investigated. A total of five goethite and ten manganite samples were selected. Half of each samples were pulverized and subjected to geochemical analysis for the major oxides, trace and rare earth elemental compositions using X-ray fluorescence while the other halves were polished for their mineralogical analyses through Raman spectroscopy. The result of the Raman spectroscopy showed that the manganites were made up essentially of psilomelane, todorokite and brookite, while the goethites were dominantly goethite, rutile and ilmenite. The result of the elemental analysis was subjected to Principal Component Analysis (PCA) using SPSS 22 software and discriminating plots using TriPlot software. The results of the discriminating plots showed that the goethites were related to hydrothermal processes whereas the manganite ores related to detrital-diagenetic processes. The conclusion drawn from the integration of field evidences, geochemical results, mineralogy, cluster analysis and discriminating plots was that the manganite ores were products of supergene enrichment, while in contrast, the goethites were formed primarily from hydrothermal processes but have been remobilized to its present position as a result of changing Eh-pH conditions in Kaoje and its environs.



Geochemistry . Goethite . Manganite . Supergene enrichment . Hydrothermal field