Anticonvulsant Properties Of The Methanol Stem Bark Extract Of Acacia Albida Del.

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Date

2010

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Published by Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria

Abstract

Acacia albida (Mimosoideae) is used in traditional medicine for the management of epilepsy. The methanol stem bark extract of Acacia albida was studied for its anticonvulsant effects in mice and chicks. The test systems selected were the maximal electroshock test (MEST) in chicks, Pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) and Strychnine (STN) induced seizure tests in mice. The effect of the extract on diazepam induced sleep in mice and preliminary phytochemical screening were also conducted. The extract (50, 100, 200 mg/kg) significantly (p< 0.001) shortened onset of sleep compared to normal saline (control) from 4.8±0.2 to 2.2±0.3, 2.0±0.0 and 2.0±0.3, respectively. The methanol stem bark extract of Acacia albida also increased total sleeping time from 58.2±14.0 to 201.0±23.9, 111.4±16.1 and 89.6±22.5 at 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg, respectively. The increase was significant (p< 0.001) at 50 mg/kg. Acacia albida stem bark extract at 200 mg/kg protected 50% of the mice against STN induced seizure with 63.3% survival rate. There was no protection against STN induced seizure at 50 and 100 mg/kg of the extract but a 16.3% and 33.3% protection against mortality was observed respectively. The extract was also able to delay, though insignificantly the onset of seizure at all the doses tested. In the PTZ induced seizure test, the extract did not protect the mice against seizure nor mortality but there was a significant (p< 0.05) delay in onset of seizure at 100 and 200 mg/kg. Similarly the extract of Acacia albida did not protect chicks against MEST. However there was a non significant dose dependent shortening of recovery time at the doses tested. Preliminary phytochemical studies of the stem bark extract of Acacia albida revealed the presence of tannins, saponin triterpenes and steroids. The intraperitoneal LD50 in mice was estimated to be 1131.4 mg/kg. Our results suggest that the methanol stem bark extract of Acacia albida may contain psychoactive principles that are relevant to the management of epilepsy (petit mal).

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Keywords

Acacia albida,, petitmal,, traditional medicine,, PTZ,, MEST, ., STN

Citation

Giwa, A , Danjuma, N.M., Saulawa, H.T., Zezi, A.U., Yaro, A.H. and Magaji, M.G. (2010 ): Anticonvulsant Properties Of The Methanol Stem Bark Extract Of Acacia Albida Del. Journal of Pharmacology and Tropical Therapeutics,1(1); 40-46 Published by Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria

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