Toxicological Evaluation of Cod Liver Oil-Enriched Vernonia amygdalina Leaf-Based Diet in Wistar Rats


Cod Liver Oil-Enriched V.amygdalina Leaf-Based Diet in our previous study elicited wound-healing effect in Type 2 diabetic rats. As part of the safety evaluation of this nutraceutical formulation, it is important to evaluate it toxicity profile. Therefore the purpose of this study was to determine the toxicological effect of cod liver oil-enriched V. amygdalina leaf-based diet (CLVA) in Wistar rats. Acute oral toxicity (limit test) and sub-acute toxicity (repeated dose 28-days oral toxicity) tests were carried out using Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development guidelines. For acute toxicity experiment, 2000 mg/kg body weight (b.wt.) single dose administration was given to 5 overnight-fasted female rats. This was done sequentially in an interval of 48 hr. While for the sub-acute study, 30 male and 30 female rats were assigned randomly to 6 groups constituting 4 main and 2 reversal groups, each containing 10 rats (5 male and 5 females). CLVA at the following doses; 0, 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg b.wt. were administered daily to Wistar rats for 28 days. Rats in the Main groups (G1, G2, G3 & G4) were sacrificed at day 29 while the reversal groups (G1R & G4R) were monitored for another 14 days without CLVA administration. Data were analysed using the 20th version of Statistical Package for Social Sciences. Results showed that the lethal dose of CLVA in Wistar rat was above 2000 mg/ kg b.wt. Water, feed intake, liver function indices (alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, albumin, total protein and total bilirubin), kidney function indices (alkaline phosphatase, blood urea nitrogen, urea, and electrolytes), lipid profile (total cholesterol, triglycerides), glucose concentration and haematological parameters were not altered significantly (p > 0.05) in CLVA-fed groups. Histopathological examination of kidneys and livers did not show any treatment-related changes as well. In conclusion, administration of CLVA at the studied doses is safe for consumption and can therefore be recommended for use by patients suffering from diabetes with delayed wound healing.



Nutraceutical, Vegetable, Biochemical, Feed, Histopathology