Characterization of Baruten Local Government Area of Kwara State (Nigeria) fireclays as suitable refractory materials

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Faculty of Engineering, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria


Studies have shown that adequate attention needs to be paid on processing of solid minerals that are potentially available in Nigeria to address its economic problem. Clays from five major towns in Baruten Local Government Area, Kwara State, Nigeria were examined using ASTM guidelines to determine their suitability for refractory applications. The clay samples were classified as Alumino-Silicate refractories due to high values of Al2O3 and SiO2. The results showed apparent porosity (19.4-25.6%), bulk density (1.83-1.90 g/cm3), cold crushing strength (38.7-56.1 N/mm2), linear shrinkage (4.4 – 9.3%), clay contents (52.71-67.83%), moisture content (17.0-23.6%), permeability (68-82 cmsec-1), plasticity (16.7-30.4%), refractoriness (>1300oC) and Thermal Shock Resistance (23-25 cycles) for the clay samples, which were measurable with the established standards for fireclays, refractory clays/brick lining or alumina-silicates and kaolin. Hence, the natural clays could suitably replace imported clays in some refractory applications. Appropriate use of information from this study would improve Nigeria’s industrialization and economic diversification.



Apparent Porosity, Bulk Density, Clay, Shrinkage, Refractory


Shuaib-Babata Y. L., Yaru S. S., Abdulkareem S., Ajayi S., Busari Y. O., Ajao K. S.,. K., Ambali I. O. & Mohammed G. A