Utilisation of Indigenous Ceramic Raw Materials for the Production of Water Closet


The fact is that Nigeria ceramic raw materials are underutilized as a result of inadequate information on the materials which limits the local production of water closet. The emphasis of this research was on the suitability of the physio-chemical properties of the abundant locally sourced ceramic raw materials from South-west Nigeria. The selected locally sourced raw materials included: kaolin, feldspar, silica and ball clay. The Physical properties carried out on the specimens produced include chemical analysis, shrinkage, porosity, bulk density, modulus of rupture, plasticity and viscosity. The physical property tests were done in accordance with (ASTM C). Standard and the chemical composition were identified by AAS spectrometer. However, the ratio of kaolin, feldspar, quartz and ball clay was varied in five major formulation represented as A, B, C, D and E. The clay, kaolin, quartz and feldspar used in this study were found to belong to alumina-silicate group suitable for the production of standard water closet. The samples’ properties met the required standards; hence, the materials were found suitable for production of water closet of acceptable standards. Composition A specimen gives the most suitable proportions for the production of water closet at 40% of kaolin, 25% of feldspar, 10% of quartz and 25% of ball clay respectively.



Ceramics Materials, Characterization, Mould, Slip-Cast, Water-Clost


Elakhame Z.U, Obe Y. O., Shuaib-Babata Y.L., Bankole L. K., Omowunmi O. J., Ambali I. O., Akinsanya O. O., Unachukwu A. J., Adeyemo R. G., Ikusedun M. (2020): Utilisation of Indigenous Ceramic Raw Materials for the Production of Water Closet. Journal of Minerals and Materials Characterization and Engineering, 8, 364-376. Published by Scientific Research: An Academic Publisher, Available online https://www.scirp.org/journal/paperinformation.aspx?paperid=102107, DOI: 10.4236/jmmce.2020.85023