Geochemical characteristics of sediments in river Niger fadama, central Nigeria

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European Water Resources Association


Floodplain also known as Fadama in Nigeria is a large centre of agricultural activities but usually faced with challenges of contamination. This study focused on the floodplain of River Niger at Jebba, Central Nigeria and the objectives of the study were to assess the geochemical characteristics of the sediments as well as their weathering indications. Thirty sediment samples were randomly collected over the entire Fadama and subjected to pulverization and geochemical analysis using X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICPMS) for major oxides, trace and rare earth elements determinations. The geochemical results show that the average concentrations of the major ions (SiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3, CaO, MgO Na2O, K2O, MnO, TiO2, P2O5, and Cr2O3) are: 66.14 wt%, 13.16 wt%, 4.48 wt%, 0.57 wt%, 0.56 wt%, 0.59 wt%, 1.86 wt%, 0.07 wt%, 0.99 wt%, 0.06 wt% and 0.01 wt% respectively. According to Upper Continental Crust Average Concentration (UCC), the major ions are depleted in the sediment except TiO2 that is enriched having an average value of 1.98; the trace elements are also depleted in the sediments except Ba, Co, Cs, Ga, Hf, U, V and Zr that are enriched having average values greater than 1; and the rare earth elements are highly enriched in the sediments with average values greater than unity. The weathering indications show that CIA, PIA and CIW give average values of 80, 89 and 92, respectively. This shows that the sediments have undergone intensive weathering. The intensive weathering of the sediments would have contributed to the concentration of metals in the water phase. Contamination Factor and Enrichment Factor of the sediments show that the sediments are enriched in trace and rare earth elements from geogenic and anthropogenic sources.



Floodplain / fadama, sediments, major oxides, trace elements, rare earth elements, weathering indications