Graphitization of Lignin-Phenol-Formaldehyde Resins
Environmental friendliness and cost demand the development of lignin-modified phenolic (LPF) resins for application as a binder for carbon-containing refractories (CCRs) production. Moreover, the in-situ graphitization of such resins can produce crystalline carbon, which is an essential component of CCRs. Consequently, this study investigated LPF resins graphitization using ferrocene, boron oxide and boric acid. The modified resins were synthesized using thermally treated kraft lignin based on 1.5 formaldehyde to phenol molar ratio and with up to 30 wt.% lignin as phenol replacement. The resins chemical composition and the structural organization and oxidation resistance of carbons derived from the plain resins and those containing the graphitizing additives were determined. The results showed that ferrocene and the boron compounds could induce graphitic carbon generation when carbonizing LPF resins at 1500 °C for 5 hours. The best graphitization level (73%) was achieved when 10 wt.% boric acid was added to the resin produced with 20 wt.% lignin. Regarding the formulations containing ferrocene, the highest amount of graphitic carbon (48%) was generated when 5 wt.% of this additive was added to the resin synthesized with 10 wt.% lignin. The carbons derived from the formulations containing boron oxide presented the best oxidation resistance.
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