Njinga, N.S ; Bakare-Odunola, M.T ; Mustapha, K.B ; Yahaya, T ; Shittu, A.O ; Bello, H.R ; Usman, S.O ; Ayanniyi, R.O ; Olufadi, H.Y (2019)


Herbal product (HP) (from Ricinus communis and honey) is used locally for the management of inflammatory and inflammation related disorders including asthma. The current study was carried out to determine the phytochemicals, total phenolic and flavonoid contents, chemical profile, elemental components, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial activity of the HP used for treatment of asthma. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteus reagent and AlCl3 colorimetric method respectively. The chemo-profiling was done using TLC. Elemental analysis was determined using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS). Albumin-induced paw oedema model was used to determine the anti-inflammatory activity while agar well diffusion method was used to determine the antimicrobial activity of the HP at different concentrations. Flavonoids, saponins, alkaloid, cardiac glycoside, steroids and terpenoids were detected in the HP. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents obtained were 10.00 mg/g gallic acid equivalent and 336.60 mg/g quercetin equivalent respectively. The chemo-profiling showed one spot at 254 nm but none at 366 nm. AAS indicated the presence of K, Ca, Fe, Na, Zn, Cu and Pb (Cu and Pb were within WHO acceptable limit). The 100 % concentration produced sudden but transient significant reduction in oedema size at 30 minutes. However, at 60 minutes the effect produced at 25 % was comparable to that of Ibuprofen at 20 mg/kg body weight. At 100% concentration HP all the organisms tested were sensitive except for Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The presence of flavonoids may justify the anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial activities thus validating its use in local treatment of Asthma.