Current Trend of Transfusion Transmissible Infections among Voluntary Blood Donors in North Central Nigeria

Abstract

Blood transfusion is an integral part of modem medicine which had saved many lives which would have been lost as a result of lack of blood. Although blood is needed for survival, it can also be a medium for the transmission of harmful infectious diseases. This study evaluated current trend of transfusion transmissible infections among voluntary blood donors in Nigeria. This was a descriptive community-based study involving 600 prospective voluntary blood donors among staff and students of 5 tertiary institutions in Kwara and Kogi States. Hepatitis B surface antigen and Hepatitis C antibodies were screened for using Hepatitis B Virus Surface Antigen Bio-Inteco ELISA KIT, and Anti-HCV Bio-Inteco ELISA KIT, respectively. Screening for HIV was done with Enzyme immunoassay method using Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) 1+2 Antigen Antibody ELISA KIT, product of Bio-Inteco HIV Diagnostics, UK. Testing for Syphilis was carried out using Rapid Plasma Reagin (RRR) test. Statistical analysis was done with IBM SPSS version 20. Level of significance was set at p< 0.05 The mean age of the subjects was 21.98 ± 5.17 years. Two thirds of the prospective blood donors were within the second decade of life and more than half were males. The prevalence of Hepatitis B among subjects were 4.7%, Hepatitis C,0.2%, HIV 1% and Syphilis 0%. The prevalence of hepatitis B and HIV were relatively high compared to Hepatitis C and Syphilis among voluntary blood donors, although lower than the prevalence among general population in Nigeria. In order to improve on blood transfusion safety, there is a need to increase public awareness on vaccination for hepatitis B virus, Quality control of screening methods and rational use of Blood.

Description

Keywords

Voluntary blood donors, Screening, Transfusion transmissible infections

Citation

Durotoye, I.A., Salaudeen, A.G., Sanni, E.O., Durowade, K.A., Babatunde, A.S., Olawumi, H.O., Akande, T.M., Musa, O.I (2021). Current Trend of Transfusion Transmissible Infections among Voluntary Blood Donors in North Central Nigeria. Tropical Journal of Health Sciences, 28(3): 7 -13.

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