Virtual synchronous generator: an overview

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Nigerian Journal of Technology


The continuous increase in the penetration of renewable energy (RE) based distributed generations (DGs) in the power system network has created a great concern on the stability of the existing grid. Traditional bulk power plants, which are dominated by synchronous machines (SMs) can easily support system instability, due to the inherent rotor inertia and damping characteristic, as well as voltage (reactive power) control ability. Nevertheless, converter based RE has some special characteristics, such as stochastic real and reactive power output, quick active and reactive power response, small output impedance, and little or no inertia and damping property thereby causing frequency and voltage instability in the system. To solve this problem, virtual synchronous generator (VSG) concept was proposed to emulate some of the features of conventional SG through converter control strategy in order to provide additional inertia virtually. Different control schemes for VSG has been proposed in literature. Surprisingly, an overview of these schemes is yet to be efficiently presented. This paper presents an overview of the VSG control schemes. It provides the concepts, the features of the control schemes and the applications of VSG. Finally, the crucial issues regarding VSG control schemes and the necessary improvement that need to be addressed are highlighted.



Distributed generation, synchronous generator, virtual synchronous generator, power electronic converter, Energy storage system, Frequency control